Finished Reviews

Compound Finance PQ Review

Score: 97%

This is a Compound Finance Process Quality Review completed on 5 Dec,2020. It was performed using the Process Review process (version 0.6) and is documented here. This is an update of the previous report from June 2020. The review was performed by ShinkaRex of Caliburn Consulting. Check out our Telegram.

This is a Compound Finance Process Quality Review completed on 5 December, 2020. It was performed using the Process Review process (version 0.6) and is documented here. This is an update of the previous report from June 2020. The review was performed by ShinkaRex of Caliburn Consulting. Check out our Telegram.

The final score of the review is 97%, a near perfect score. The breakdown of the scoring is in Scoring Appendix.

Summary of the Process

Very simply, the review looks for the following declarations from the developer's site. With these declarations, it is reasonable to trust the smart contracts.

  • Here are my smart contracts on the blockchain

  • Here is the documentation that explains what my smart contracts do

  • Here are the tests I ran to verify my smart contract

  • Here are the audit(s) performed on my code by third party experts

Disclaimer

This report is for informational purposes only and does not constitute investment advice of any kind, nor does it constitute an offer to provide investment advisory or other services. Nothing in this report shall be considered a solicitation or offer to buy or sell any security, token, future, option or other financial instrument or to offer or provide any investment advice or service to any person in any jurisdiction. Nothing contained in this report constitutes investment advice or offers any opinion with respect to the suitability of any security, and the views expressed in this report should not be taken as advice to buy, sell or hold any security. The information in this report should not be relied upon for the purpose of investing. In preparing the information contained in this report, we have not taken into account the investment needs, objectives and financial circumstances of any particular investor. This information has no regard to the specific investment objectives, financial situation and particular needs of any specific recipient of this information and investments discussed may not be suitable for all investors.

Any views expressed in this report by us were prepared based upon the information available to us at the time such views were written. The views expressed within this report are limited to DeFiSafety and the author and do not reflect those of any additional or third party and are strictly based upon DeFiSafety, its authors, interpretations and evaluation of relevant data. Changed or additional information could cause such views to change. All information is subject to possible correction. Information may quickly become unreliable for various reasons, including changes in market conditions or economic circumstances.

This completed report is copyright (c) DeFiSafety 2021. Permission is given to copy in whole, retaining this copyright label.

Code and Team

This section looks at the code deployed on the Mainnet that gets reviewed and its corresponding software repository. The document explaining these questions is here. This review will answer the questions;

  1. Are the executing code addresses readily available? (Y/N)

  2. Is the code actively being used? (%)

  3. Is there a public software repository? (Y/N)

  4. Is there a development history visible? (%)

  5. Is the team public (not anonymous)? (Y/N)

Are the executing code addresses readily available? (Y/N)

Answer: Yes

They are available at website https://compound.finance/docs#networks as indicated in the Appendix.

Is the code actively being used? (%)

Answer: 100%

Activity is well in excess of 100 transactions a day on contract 0x3d9819210a31b4961b30ef54be2aed79b9c9cd3b , as indicated in the Appendix.

Percentage Score Guidance

100% More than 10 transactions a day 70% More than 10 transactions a week 40% More than 10 transactions a month 10% Less than 10 transactions a month 0% No activity

Is there a public software repository? (Y/N)

Answer: Yes

Location: https://github.com/compound-finance/compound-protocol

Is there a public software repository with the code at a minimum, but normally test and scripts also (Y/N). Even if the repo was created just to hold the files and has just 1 transaction, it gets a Yes. For teams with private repos, this answer is No.

Is there a development history visible? (%)

Answer: 100%

While just 49 commits, they have 21 branches and 17 releases. This is a healthy repo.

This checks if the software repository demonstrates a strong steady history. This is normally demonstrated by commits, branches and releases in a software repository. A healthy history demonstrates a history of more than a month (at a minimum).

Guidance: 100% Any one of 100+ commits, 10+branches 70% Any one of 70+ commits, 7+branches 50% Any one of 50+ commits, 5+branches 30% Any one of 30+ commits, 3+branches 0% Less than 2 branches or less than 10 commits

Is the team public (not anonymous)? (Y/N)

Answer: Yes

Team description: https://compound.finance/about

For a yes in this question the real names of some team members must be public on the website or other documentation. If the team is anonymous and then this question is a No.

How to improve this score

A public team increases overall trust in an application. It reduces the risk of "rug pulls" or having a team member disappear with some assets.

Documentation

This section looks at the software documentation. The document explaining these questions is here.

Required questions are;

  1. Is there a whitepaper? (Y/N)

  2. Are the basic software functions documented? (Y/N)

  3. Does the software function documentation fully (100%) cover the deployed contracts? (%)

  4. Are there sufficiently detailed comments for all functions within the deployed contract code (%)

  5. Is it possible to trace from software documentation to the implementation in codee (%)

Is there a whitepaper? (Y/N)

Answer: Yes

Location: https://github.com/compound-finance/compound-protocol

Are the basic software functions documented? (Y/N)

Answer: Yes

Location: https://github.com/compound-finance/compound-protocol/blob/master/docs/CompoundProtocol.pdf

Does the software function documentation fully (100%) cover the deployed contracts? (%)

Answer: 100%

Location : https://github.com/compound-finance/compound-protocol/blob/master/docs/CompoundProtocol.pdf

This document methodically goes through all the contract functions.

Guidance:

100% All contracts and functions documented 80% Only the major functions documented 79-1% Estimate of the level of software documentation 0% No software documentation

How to improve this score

This score can improve by adding content to the requirements document such that it comprehensively covers the requirements. For guidance, refer to the SecurEth System Description Document . Using tools that aid traceability detection will help.

Are there sufficiently detailed comments for all functions within the deployed contract code (%)

Answer: 80%

Code examples are in the Appendix. As per the SLOC, there is 80% commenting to code (CtC).

The Comments to Code (CtC) ratio is the primary metric for this score.

Guidance: 100% CtC > 100 Useful comments consistently on all code 90-70% CtC > 70 Useful comment on most code 60-20% CtC > 20 Some useful commenting 0% CtC < 20 No useful commenting

Is it possible to trace from software documentation to the implementation in code (%)

Answer: 80%

Each function is explicitly listed and documented, giving good functional traceability.

Guidance: 100% - Clear explicit traceability between code and documentation at a requirement level for all code 60% - Clear association between code and documents via non explicit traceability 40% - Documentation lists all the functions and describes their functions 0% - No connection between documentation and code

How to improve this score

This score can improve by adding traceability from requirements to code such that it is clear where each requirement is coded. For reference, check the SecurEth guidelines on traceability.

Testing

This section looks at the software testing available. It is explained in this document. This section answers the following questions;

  1. Full test suite (Covers all the deployed code) (%)

  2. Code coverage (Covers all the deployed lines of code, or explains misses) (%)

  3. Scripts and instructions to run the tests (Y/N)

  4. Packaged with the deployed code (Y/N)

  5. Report of the results (%)

  6. Formal Verification test done (%)

  7. Stress Testing environment (%)

Is there a Full test suite? (%)

Answer: 100%

Location: https://github.com/compound-finance/compound-protocol/tree/master/tests

Test to Code ratio: 197%

This score is guided by the Test to Code ratio (TtC). Generally a good test to code ratio is over 100%. However the reviewers best judgement is the final deciding factor.

Guidance: 100% TtC > 120% Both unit and system test visible 80% TtC > 80% Both unit and system test visible 40% TtC < 80% Some tests visible 0% No tests obvious

How to improve this score

This score can improve by adding tests to fully cover the code. Document what is covered by traceability or test results in the software repository.

Code coverage (Covers all the deployed lines of code, or explains misses) (%)

Answer: 62%

Based on code coverage for branch 2.6 apha 1 the code was 62% (https://app.codecov.io/gh/compound-finance/compound-protocol/branch/compound%2F2.6-alpha2.1)

Guidance: 100% - Documented full coverage 99-51% - Value of test coverage from documented results 50% - No indication of code coverage but clearly there is a reasonably complete set of tests 30% - Some tests evident but not complete 0% - No test for coverage seen

How to improve this score

This score can improve by adding tests achieving full code coverage. A clear report and scripts in the software repository will guarantee a high score.

Scripts and instructions to run the tests (Y/N)

Answer: Y

How to improve this score

Add the scripts to the repository and ensure they work. Ask an outsider to create the environment and run the tests. Improve the scripts and docs based on their feedback.

Packaged with the deployed code (Y/N)

Answer: Y

How to improve this score

Improving this score requires redeployment of the code, with the tests. This score gives credit to those who test their code before deployment and release them together. If a developer adds tests after deployment they can gain full points for all test elements except this one.

Report of the results (%)

Answer: 75%

The code coverage reports (https://app.codecov.io/gh/compound-finance/compound-protocol/branch/compound%2F2.6-alpha2.1) constitute a basic report.

How to improve this score

Add a report with the results. The test scripts should generate the report or elements of it.

Formal Verification test done (%)

Answer: 100%

A formal verification was performed by the Cetora group. Their report clearly states what they did. Some errors were found and listed. We cannot comment on the impact of the errors listed. The Certora report stats that Compound met their specification.

Stress Testing environment (%)

Answer: 100%

Compound operates a simulation-based market stress-testing platform to evaluate the economic security of the Compound protocol, as it scales supported assets and volume. This is operated by Gauntlet and a report is on the Compound website security section.

Audits

Answer: 100%

Compound has had consistent audits through their development as documented on their site. They have audits from two top level audit organizations. The audits are public and they have implemented findings in order to improve their code.

Guidance:

  1. Multiple Audits performed before deployment and results public and implemented or not required (100%)

  2. Single audit performed before deployment and results public and implemented or not required (90%)

  3. Audit(s) performed after deployment and no changes required. Audit report is public. (70%)

  4. No audit performed (20%)

  5. Audit Performed after deployment, existence is public, report is not public and no improvements deployed OR smart contract address' not found, question 1 (0%)

Appendices

Author Details

The author of this review is Rex of Caliburn Consulting.

Email : [email protected]defisafety.com Twitter : @defisafety

I started with Ethereum just before the DAO and that was a wonderful education. It showed the importance of code quality. The second Parity hack also showed the importance of good process. Here my aviation background offers some value. Aerospace knows how to make reliable code using quality processes.

I was coaxed to go to EthDenver 2018 and there I started SecuEth.org with Bryant and Roman. We created guidelines on good processes for blockchain code development. We got EthFoundation funding to assist in their development.

Process Quality Reviews are an extension of the SecurEth guidelines that will further increase the quality processes in Solidity and Vyper development.

Career wise I am a business development manager for an avionics supplier.

Scoring Appendix

Executing Code Appendix

Code Used Appendix

Example Code Appendix

/**
* @title Compound's CToken Contract
* @notice Abstract base for CTokens
* @author Compound
*/
contract CToken is CTokenInterface, Exponential, TokenErrorReporter {
/**
* @notice Initialize the money market
* @param comptroller_ The address of the Comptroller
* @param interestRateModel_ The address of the interest rate model
* @param initialExchangeRateMantissa_ The initial exchange rate, scaled by 1e18
* @param name_ EIP-20 name of this token
* @param symbol_ EIP-20 symbol of this token
* @param decimals_ EIP-20 decimal precision of this token
*/
function initialize(ComptrollerInterface comptroller_,
InterestRateModel interestRateModel_,
uint initialExchangeRateMantissa_,
string memory name_,
string memory symbol_,
uint8 decimals_) public {
require(msg.sender == admin, "only admin may initialize the market");
require(accrualBlockNumber == 0 && borrowIndex == 0, "market may only be initialized once");
// Set initial exchange rate
initialExchangeRateMantissa = initialExchangeRateMantissa_;
require(initialExchangeRateMantissa > 0, "initial exchange rate must be greater than zero.");
// Set the comptroller
uint err = _setComptroller(comptroller_);
require(err == uint(Error.NO_ERROR), "setting comptroller failed");
// Initialize block number and borrow index (block number mocks depend on comptroller being set)
accrualBlockNumber = getBlockNumber();
borrowIndex = mantissaOne;
// Set the interest rate model (depends on block number / borrow index)
err = _setInterestRateModelFresh(interestRateModel_);
require(err == uint(Error.NO_ERROR), "setting interest rate model failed");
name = name_;
symbol = symbol_;
decimals = decimals_;
// The counter starts true to prevent changing it from zero to non-zero (i.e. smaller cost/refund)
_notEntered = true;
}

SLOC Appendix

Solidity Contracts

Language

Files

Lines

Blanks

Comments

Code

Complexity

Solidity

14

7551

1227

2810

3514

750

Comments to Code 2810 / 3514 = 80%

Javascript Tests

Language

Files

Lines

Blanks

Comments

Code

Complexity

JavaScript

43

6952

1102

154

5696

202