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Cyclone Protocol Process Quality Review

Score: 53%

Overview

This is a Cyclone Protocol Process Quality Review completed on July 26th 2021. It was performed using the Process Review process (version 0.7.3) and is documented here. The review was performed by Nic of DeFiSafety. Check out our Telegram.

The final score of the review is 53%, a fail. The breakdown of the scoring is in Scoring Appendix. For our purposes, a pass is 70%.

Summary of the Process

Very simply, the review looks for the following declarations from the developer's site. With these declarations, it is reasonable to trust the smart contracts.

  • Here are my smart contracts on the blockchain

  • Here is the documentation that explains what my smart contracts do

  • Here are the tests I ran to verify my smart contract

  • Here are the audit(s) performed on my code by third party experts

  • Here are the admin controls and strategies

Disclaimer

This report is for informational purposes only and does not constitute investment advice of any kind, nor does it constitute an offer to provide investment advisory or other services. Nothing in this report shall be considered a solicitation or offer to buy or sell any security, token, future, option or other financial instrument or to offer or provide any investment advice or service to any person in any jurisdiction. Nothing contained in this report constitutes investment advice or offers any opinion with respect to the suitability of any security, and the views expressed in this report should not be taken as advice to buy, sell or hold any security. The information in this report should not be relied upon for the purpose of investing. In preparing the information contained in this report, we have not taken into account the investment needs, objectives and financial circumstances of any particular investor. This information has no regard to the specific investment objectives, financial situation and particular needs of any specific recipient of this information and investments discussed may not be suitable for all investors.

Any views expressed in this report by us were prepared based upon the information available to us at the time such views were written. The views expressed within this report are limited to DeFiSafety and the author and do not reflect those of any additional or third party and are strictly based upon DeFiSafety, its authors, interpretations and evaluation of relevant data. Changed or additional information could cause such views to change. All information is subject to possible correction. Information may quickly become unreliable for various reasons, including changes in market conditions or economic circumstances.

This completed report is copyright (c) DeFiSafety 2021. Permission is given to copy in whole, retaining this copyright label.

Chain

This section indicates the blockchain used by this protocol.

Chain: Ethereum, Binance Smart Chain, Polygon

Guidance: Ethereum Binance Smart Chain Polygon Avalanche

Code and Team

This section looks at the code deployed on the Mainnet that gets reviewed and its corresponding software repository. The document explaining these questions is here. This review will answer the following questions:

1) Are the executing code addresses readily available? (%) 2) Is the code actively being used? (%) 3) Is there a public software repository? (Y/N) 4) Is there a development history visible? (%) 5) Is the team public (not anonymous)? (Y/N)

1) Are the executing code addresses readily available? (%)

Answer: 100%

They are available at website https://docs.cyclone.xyz/deployment, as indicated in the Appendix.

Guidance: 100% Clearly labelled and on website, docs or repo, quick to find 70% Clearly labelled and on website, docs or repo but takes a bit of looking 40% Addresses in mainnet.json, in discord or sub graph, etc 20% Address found but labeling not clear or easy to find 0% Executing addresses could not be found

2) Is the code actively being used? (%)

Answer: 100%

Activity is over 10 transactions a day on contract AeolusV2dot1.sol, as indicated in the Appendix.

Guidance:

100% More than 10 transactions a day 70% More than 10 transactions a week 40% More than 10 transactions a month 10% Less than 10 transactions a month 0% No activity

3) Is there a public software repository? (Y/N)

Answer: Yes

GitHub: https://github.com/cycloneprotocol/cyclone-contracts.

Is there a public software repository with the code at a minimum, but also normally test and scripts. Even if the repository was created just to hold the files and has just 1 transaction, it gets a "Yes". For teams with private repositories, this answer is "No".

4) Is there a development history visible? (%)

Answer: 0%

With 16 commits and 1 branch, this is an unhealthy software repository.

This metric checks if the software repository demonstrates a strong steady history. This is normally demonstrated by commits, branches and releases in a software repository. A healthy history demonstrates a history of more than a month (at a minimum).

Guidance: 100% Any one of 100+ commits, 10+branches 70% Any one of 70+ commits, 7+branches 50% Any one of 50+ commits, 5+branches 30% Any one of 30+ commits, 3+branches 0% Less than 2 branches or less than 30 commits

How to improve this score:

Continue to test and perform other verification activities after deployment, including routine maintenance updating to new releases of testing and deployment tools. A public development history indicates clearly to the public the level of continued investment and activity by the developers on the application. This gives a level of security and faith in the application.

5) Is the team public (not anonymous)? (Y/N)

Answer: No

The Cyclone Protocol team is anonymous.

For a "Yes" in this question, the real names of some team members must be public on the website or other documentation (LinkedIn, etc). If the team is anonymous, then this question is a "No".

Documentation

This section looks at the software documentation. The document explaining these questions is here.

Required questions are;

6) Is there a whitepaper? (Y/N) 7) Are the basic software functions documented? (Y/N) 8) Does the software function documentation fully (100%) cover the deployed contracts? (%) 9) Are there sufficiently detailed comments for all functions within the deployed contract code (%) 10) Is it possible to trace from software documentation to the implementation in code (%)

6) Is there a whitepaper? (Y/N)

Answer: Yes

Location: https://docs.cyclone.xyz/.

7) Are the basic software functions documented? (Y/N)

Answer: No

Cyclone Protocol has no actual software documentation or even detailed description of algorithms.

8) Does the software function documentation fully (100%) cover the deployed contracts? (%)

Answer: 0%

Cyclone Protocol does not seem to have software documentation.

Guidance:

100% All contracts and functions documented 80% Only the major functions documented 79-1% Estimate of the level of software documentation 0% No software documentation

9) Are there sufficiently detailed comments for all functions within the deployed contract code (%)

Answer: 38%

Code examples are in the Appendix. As per the SLOC, there is 38% commenting to code (CtC).

The Comments to Code (CtC) ratio is the primary metric for this score.

Note: The CtC was calculated using the main operating smart contract source code files from the Cyclone Protocol GitHub repository. Files that were not used: interface files, Cream, mock files, Uniswap files, Tornado Cash files, and all previous version files of important contracts (ex: AeolusV2.sol and AeolusV2dot2.sol).

Guidance: 100% CtC > 100 Useful comments consistently on all code 90-70% CtC > 70 Useful comment on most code 60-20% CtC > 20 Some useful commenting 0% CtC < 20 No useful commenting

How to improve this score

This score can improve by adding comments to the deployed code such that it comprehensively covers the code. For guidance, refer to the SecurEth Software Requirements.

10) Is it possible to trace from software documentation to the implementation in code (%)

Answer: 0%

With no documentation, there can not be traceability.

Guidance: 100% Clear explicit traceability between code and documentation at a requirement level for all code 60% Clear association between code and documents via non explicit traceability 40% Documentation lists all the functions and describes their functions 0% No connection between documentation and code

How to improve this score:

This score can improve by adding traceability from documentation to code such that it is clear where each outlined function is coded in the source code. For reference, check the SecurEth guidelines on traceability.

Testing

This section looks at the software testing available. It is explained in this document. This section answers the following questions;

11) Full test suite (Covers all the deployed code) (%) 12) Code coverage (Covers all the deployed lines of code, or explains misses) (%) 13) Scripts and instructions to run the tests (Y/N) 14) Report of the results (%) 15) Formal Verification test done (%) 16) Stress Testing environment (%)

11) Is there a Full test suite? (%)

Answer: 40%

Code examples are in the Appendix. As per the SLOC, there is 57% testing to code (TtC).

This score is guided by the Test to Code ratio (TtC). Generally a good test to code ratio is over 100%. However the reviewers best judgement is the final deciding factor.

Guidance: 100% TtC > 120% Both unit and system test visible 80% TtC > 80% Both unit and system test visible 40% TtC < 80% Some tests visible 0% No tests obvious

How to improve this score:

This score can improved by adding tests to fully cover the code. Document what is covered by traceability or test results in the software repository.

12) Code coverage (Covers all the deployed lines of code, or explains misses) (%)

Answer: 30%

There is no evidence of test coverage in any of the Cyclone Protocol documentation or audit reports. However, they do have an acceptable testing suite.

Guidance: 100% Documented full coverage 99-51% Value of test coverage from documented results 50% No indication of code coverage but clearly there is a reasonably complete set of tests 30% Some tests evident but not complete 0% No test for coverage seen

How to improve this score:

This score can improved by adding tests that achieve full code coverage. A clear report and scripts in the software repository will guarantee a high score.

13) Scripts and instructions to run the tests (Y/N)

Answer: Yes

Scrips/Instructions location: https://docs.cyclone.xyz/development#test-contracts.

14) Report of the results (%)

Answer: 0%

There is no evidence of any test reports in the Cyclone Protocol documentation or software repositories.

Guidance: 100% Detailed test report as described below 70% GitHub code coverage report visible 0% No test report evident

How to improve this score

Add a report with the results. The test scripts should generate the report or elements of it.

15) Formal Verification test done (%)

Answer: 0%

There is no evidence of a Cyclone Protocol Formal Verification test in any of their documentation or in web searches.

16) Stress Testing environment (%)

Answer: 100%

Although there are no provided test-net addresses, Cyclone Protocol's documentation instructs users on how to interact with their test-net smart contracts, which is evidence that there is presence of stress testing via test-net smart contracts. Found at https://docs.cyclone.xyz/development#test-contracts and https://docs.cyclone.xyz/development#interaction-with-cyclone-contracts-anonymity-mining.

Security

This section looks at the 3rd party software audits done. It is explained in this document. This section answers the following questions;

17) Did 3rd Party audits take place? (%) 18) Is the bounty value acceptably high?

17) Did 3rd Party audits take place? (%)

Answer: 90%

​ChainShield published a Cyclone V2 audit report on March 12th 2021.​

​Slowmist published a Cyclone V2 audit report on March 22nd 2021.​

Most fix recommendations were implemented by the Cyclone team.

Cyclone Protocol V2 was launched on March 15th 2021.

Guidance: 100% Multiple Audits performed before deployment and results public and implemented or not required 90% Single audit performed before deployment and results public and implemented or not required 70% Audit(s) performed after deployment and no changes required. Audit report is public

50% Audit(s) performed after deployment and changes needed but not implemented 20% No audit performed 0% Audit Performed after deployment, existence is public, report is not public and no improvements deployed OR smart contract address' not found, question

Deduct 25% if code is in a private repo and no note from auditors that audit is applicable to deployed code

18) Is the bounty value acceptably high (%)

Answer: 0%

There is no evidence of a Cyclone Protocol Bug Bounty program.

Guidance:

100% Bounty is 10% TVL or at least $1M AND active program (see below) 90% Bounty is 5% TVL or at least 500k AND active program 80% Bounty is 5% TVL or at least 500k 70% Bounty is 100k or over AND active program 60% Bounty is 100k or over 50% Bounty is 50k or over AND active program 40% Bounty is 50k or over 20% Bug bounty program bounty is less than 50k 0% No bug bounty program offered

An active program means that a third party (such as Immunefi) is actively driving hackers to the site. An inactive program would be static mentions on the docs.

Access Controls

This section covers the documentation of special access controls for a DeFi protocol. The admin access controls are the contracts that allow updating contracts or coefficients in the protocol. Since these contracts can allow the protocol admins to "change the rules", complete disclosure of capabilities is vital for user's transparency. It is explained in this document. The questions this section asks are as follow;

19) Can a user clearly and quickly find the status of the admin controls? 20) Is the information clear and complete? 21) Is the information in non-technical terms that pertain to the investments? 22) Is there Pause Control documentation including records of tests?

19) Can a user clearly and quickly find the status of the access controls (%)

Answer: 100%

Location: https://docs.cyclone.xyz/governance.

Guidance: 100% Clearly labelled and on website, docs or repo, quick to find 70% Clearly labelled and on website, docs or repo but takes a bit of looking 40% Access control docs in multiple places and not well labelled 20% Access control docs in multiple places and not labelled 0% Admin Control information could not be found

20) Is the information clear and complete (%)

Answer: 60%

a) Contracts are clearly upgradeable via the voting process.

c) The capabilities for contract changes via voting mechanisms is described here.​

Note: Cyclone's full governance model is technically not fully launched yet. However, they still have this information ready and available in their current governance documentation.

Guidance: All the contracts are immutable -- 100% OR

a) All contracts are clearly labelled as upgradeable (or not) -- 30% AND b) The type of ownership is clearly indicated (OnlyOwner / MultiSig / Defined Roles) -- 30% AND c) The capabilities for change in the contracts are described -- 30%

How to improve this score:

Create a document that covers the items described above. An example is enclosed.

21) Is the information in non-technical terms that pertain to the investments (%)

Answer: 30%

There currently is not any information regarding investment safety due to the fact that the full Cyclone governance model has yet to be launched.

Guidance: 100% All the contracts are immutable 90% Description relates to investments safety and updates in clear, complete non-software l language 30% Description all in software specific language 0% No admin control information could not be found

How to improve this score:

Create a document that covers the items described above in plain language that investors can understand. An example is enclosed.

22) Is there Pause Control documentation including records of tests (%)

Answer: 40%

Evidence of a Pause Control mechanism can be found in Pausable.sol.

Guidance: 100% All the contracts are immutable or no pause control needed and this is explained OR 100% Pause control(s) are clearly documented and there is records of at least one test within 3 months 80% Pause control(s) explained clearly but no evidence of regular tests 40% Pause controls mentioned with no detail on capability or tests 0% Pause control not documented or explained

How to improve this score:

Create a document that covers the items described above in plain language that investors can understand. An example is enclosed.

Appendices

Author Details

The author of this review is Rex of DeFi Safety.

Email : [email protected] Twitter : @defisafety

I started with Ethereum just before the DAO and that was a wonderful education. It showed the importance of code quality. The second Parity hack also showed the importance of good process. Here my aviation background offers some value. Aerospace knows how to make reliable code using quality processes.

I was coaxed to go to EthDenver 2018 and there I started SecuEth.org with Bryant and Roman. We created guidelines on good processes for blockchain code development. We got EthFoundation funding to assist in their development.

Process Quality Reviews are an extension of the SecurEth guidelines that will further increase the quality processes in Solidity and Vyper development.

DeFiSafety is my full time gig and we are working on funding vehicles for a permanent staff.

Scoring Appendix

Executing Code Appendix

Code Used Appendix

Example Code Appendix

// Aeolus is the master of Cyclone tokens. He can distribute CYC and he is a fair guy.
//
// Note that it's ownable and the owner wields tremendous power. The ownership
// will be transferred to a governance smart contract once CYC is sufficiently
// distributed and the community can show to govern itself.
//
// Have fun reading it. Hopefully it's bug-free. God bless.
contract AeolusV2dot2 is Ownable {
using SafeMath for uint256;
using SafeERC20 for IERC20;
​
// Info of each user.
struct UserInfo {
uint256 amount; // How many LP tokens the user has provided.
uint256 rewardDebt; // Reward debt. See explanation below.
//
// We do some fancy math here. Basically, any point in time, the amount of CYCs
// entitled to a user but is pending to be distributed is:
//
// pending reward = (user.amount * accCYCPerShare) - user.rewardDebt
//
// Whenever a user deposits or withdraws LP tokens to a pool. Here's what happens:
// 1. Update accCYCPerShare and lastRewardBlock
// 2. User receives the pending reward sent to his/her address.
// 3. User's `amount` gets updated.
// 4. User's `rewardDebt` gets updated.
}
​
​
// Address of LP token contract.
IERC20 public lpToken;
// Accumulated CYCs per share, times 1e12. See below.
uint256 public accCYCPerShare;
// Last block reward block height
uint256 public lastRewardBlock;
// Reward per block
uint256 public rewardPerBlock;
// Reward to distribute
uint256 public rewardToDistribute;
// Entrance Fee Rate
uint256 public entranceFeeRate;
​
IExchange public exchange;
// The Cyclone TOKEN
IMintableToken public cycToken;
​
// Info of each user that stakes LP tokens.
mapping (address => UserInfo) public userInfo;
​
event RewardAdded(uint256 amount, bool isBlockReward);
event Deposit(address indexed user, uint256 amount, uint256 fee);
event Withdraw(address indexed user, uint256 amount);
event EmergencyWithdraw(address indexed user, uint256 amount);
​
constructor(IMintableToken _cycToken, address payable _exchange) public {
cycToken = _cycToken;
lastRewardBlock = block.number;
lpToken = IERC20(_exchange);
exchange = IExchange(_exchange);
}
​
function() external payable {
}
​
function setEntranceFeeRate(uint256 _entranceFeeRate) public onlyOwner {
require(_entranceFeeRate < 10000, "invalid entrance fee rate");
entranceFeeRate = _entranceFeeRate;
}
​
function setRewardPerBlock(uint256 _rewardPerBlock) public onlyOwner {
updateBlockReward();
rewardPerBlock = _rewardPerBlock;
}
​
function rewardPending() internal view returns (uint256) {
uint256 reward = block.number.sub(lastRewardBlock).mul(rewardPerBlock);
uint256 cycBalance = cycToken.balanceOf(address(this)).sub(rewardToDistribute);
if (cycBalance < reward) {
return cycBalance;
}
return reward;
}
​
// View function to see pending reward on frontend.
function pendingReward(address _user) external view returns (uint256) {
UserInfo storage user = userInfo[_user];
uint256 acps = accCYCPerShare;
if (rewardPerBlock > 0) {
uint256 lpSupply = lpToken.balanceOf(address(this));
if (block.number > lastRewardBlock && lpSupply > 0) {
acps = acps.add(rewardPending().mul(1e12).div(lpSupply));
}
}
​
return user.amount.mul(acps).div(1e12).sub(user.rewardDebt);
}
​
// Update reward variables to be up-to-date.
function updateBlockReward() public {
if (block.number <= lastRewardBlock || rewardPerBlock == 0) {
return;
}
uint256 lpSupply = lpToken.balanceOf(address(this));
uint256 reward = rewardPending();
if (lpSupply == 0 || reward == 0) {
lastRewardBlock = block.number;
return;
}
rewardToDistribute = rewardToDistribute.add(reward);
emit RewardAdded(reward, true);
lastRewardBlock = block.number;
accCYCPerShare = accCYCPerShare.add(reward.mul(1e12).div(lpSupply));
}
​
// Deposit LP tokens to Aeolus for CYC allocation.
function deposit(uint256 _amount) public {
updateBlockReward();
UserInfo storage user = userInfo[msg.sender];
uint256 originAmount = user.amount;
uint256 acps = accCYCPerShare;
if (originAmount > 0) {
uint256 pending = originAmount.mul(acps).div(1e12).sub(user.rewardDebt);
if (pending > 0) {
safeCYCTransfer(msg.sender, pending);
}
}
uint256 feeInCYC = 0;
if (_amount > 0) {
lpToken.safeTransferFrom(address(msg.sender), address(this), _amount);
uint256 entranceFee = _amount.mul(entranceFeeRate).div(10000);
if (entranceFee > 0) {
(uint256 iotxAmount, uint256 cycAmount) = exchange.removeLiquidity(entranceFee, 1, 1, block.timestamp.mul(2));
feeInCYC = cycAmount.add(exchange.iotxToTokenSwapInput.value(iotxAmount)(1, block.timestamp.mul(2)));
require(cycToken.burn(feeInCYC), "failed to burn cyc token");
_amount = _amount.sub(entranceFee);
}
user.amount = originAmount.add(_amount);
}
user.rewardDebt = user.amount.mul(acps).div(1e12);
emit Deposit(msg.sender, _amount, feeInCYC);
}
​
// Withdraw LP tokens from Aeolus.
function withdraw(uint256 _amount) public {
UserInfo storage user = userInfo[msg.sender];
uint256 originAmount = user.amount;
require(originAmount >= _amount, "withdraw: not good");
updateBlockReward();
uint256 acps = accCYCPerShare;
uint256 pending = originAmount.mul(acps).div(1e12).sub(user.rewardDebt);
if (pending > 0) {
safeCYCTransfer(msg.sender, pending);
}
if (_amount > 0) {
user.amount = originAmount.sub(_amount);
lpToken.safeTransfer(address(msg.sender), _amount);
}
user.rewardDebt = user.amount.mul(acps).div(1e12);
emit Withdraw(msg.sender, _amount);
}
​
// Withdraw without caring about rewards. EMERGENCY ONLY.
function emergencyWithdraw() public {
UserInfo storage user = userInfo[msg.sender];
uint256 amount = user.amount;
user.amount = 0;
user.rewardDebt = 0;
lpToken.safeTransfer(address(msg.sender), amount);
emit EmergencyWithdraw(msg.sender, amount);
}
​
// Safe CYC transfer function, just in case if rounding error causes pool to not have enough CYCs.
function safeCYCTransfer(address _to, uint256 _amount) internal {
IMintableToken token = cycToken;
uint256 cycBalance = token.balanceOf(address(this));
if (_amount > cycBalance) {
_amount = cycBalance;
}
rewardToDistribute = rewardToDistribute.sub(_amount);
require(token.transfer(_to, _amount), "failed to transfer cyc token");
}

SLOC Appendix

Solidity Contracts

Language

Files

Lines

Blanks

Comments

Code

Complexity

Solidity

14

2568

303

625

1640

209

Comments to Code 625/1640 = 38%

Javascript Tests

Language

Files

Lines

Blanks

Comments

Code

Complexity

JavaScript

5

1062

85

39

938

1

Tests to Code 938/1640 = 57%