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Kine Protocol Process Quality Review

Score: 61%

Overview

This is a Kine Protocol Process Quality Review completed on September 1st 2021. It was performed using the Process Review process (version 0.7.3) and is documented here. The review was performed by Nic of DeFiSafety. Check out our Telegram.

The final score of the review is 61%, a FAIL. The breakdown of the scoring is in Scoring Appendix. For our purposes, a pass is 70%.

Summary of the Process

Very simply, the review looks for the following declarations from the developer's site. With these declarations, it is reasonable to trust the smart contracts.

  • Here are my smart contracts on the blockchain

  • Here is the documentation that explains what my smart contracts do

  • Here are the tests I ran to verify my smart contract

  • Here are the audit(s) performed on my code by third party experts

  • Here are the admin controls and strategies

Disclaimer

This report is for informational purposes only and does not constitute investment advice of any kind, nor does it constitute an offer to provide investment advisory or other services. Nothing in this report shall be considered a solicitation or offer to buy or sell any security, token, future, option or other financial instrument or to offer or provide any investment advice or service to any person in any jurisdiction. Nothing contained in this report constitutes investment advice or offers any opinion with respect to the suitability of any security, and the views expressed in this report should not be taken as advice to buy, sell or hold any security. The information in this report should not be relied upon for the purpose of investing. In preparing the information contained in this report, we have not taken into account the investment needs, objectives and financial circumstances of any particular investor. This information has no regard to the specific investment objectives, financial situation and particular needs of any specific recipient of this information and investments discussed may not be suitable for all investors.

Any views expressed in this report by us were prepared based upon the information available to us at the time such views were written. The views expressed within this report are limited to DeFiSafety and the author and do not reflect those of any additional or third party and are strictly based upon DeFiSafety, its authors, interpretations and evaluation of relevant data. Changed or additional information could cause such views to change. All information is subject to possible correction. Information may quickly become unreliable for various reasons, including changes in market conditions or economic circumstances.

This completed report is copyright (c) DeFiSafety 2021. Permission is given to copy in whole, retaining this copyright label.

Chain

This section indicates the blockchain used by this protocol.

Chain: Ethereum, Binance Smart Chain, Polygon

Guidance: Ethereum Binance Smart Chain Polygon Avalanche Terra

Code and Team

This section looks at the code deployed on the Mainnet that gets reviewed and its corresponding software repository. The document explaining these questions is here. This review will answer the following questions:

1) Are the executing code addresses readily available? (%) 2) Is the code actively being used? (%) 3) Is there a public software repository? (Y/N) 4) Is there a development history visible? (%) 5) Is the team public (not anonymous)? (Y/N)

1) Are the executing code addresses readily available? (%)

Answer: Yes

They are available at website https://docs.kine.io/whitepaper/contract-address, as indicated in the Appendix.

Guidance: 100% Clearly labelled and on website, docs or repo, quick to find 70% Clearly labelled and on website, docs or repo but takes a bit of looking 40% Addresses in mainnet.json, in discord or sub graph, etc 20% Address found but labeling not clear or easy to find 0% Executing addresses could not be found

2) Is the code actively being used? (%)

Answer: 100%

Activity is over 10 transactions a day on contract Unitroller.sol (Controller), as indicated in the Appendix.

Guidance:

100% More than 10 transactions a day 70% More than 10 transactions a week 40% More than 10 transactions a month 10% Less than 10 transactions a month 0% No activity

3) Is there a public software repository? (Y/N)

Answer: Yes

GitHub: https://github.com/Kine-Technology/kine-protocol.

Is there a public software repository with the code at a minimum, but also normally test and scripts. Even if the repository was created just to hold the files and has just 1 transaction, it gets a "Yes". For teams with private repositories, this answer is "No".

4) Is there a development history visible? (%)

Answer: 50%

With 63 commits and 3 branches, this is a semi-healthy software repository.

This metric checks if the software repository demonstrates a strong steady history. This is normally demonstrated by commits, branches and releases in a software repository. A healthy history demonstrates a history of more than a month (at a minimum).

Guidance: 100% Any one of 100+ commits, 10+branches 70% Any one of 70+ commits, 7+branches 50% Any one of 50+ commits, 5+branches 30% Any one of 30+ commits, 3+branches 0% Less than 2 branches or less than 30 commits

How to improve this score:

Continue to test and perform other verification activities after deployment, including routine maintenance updating to new releases of testing and deployment tools. A public development history indicates clearly to the public the level of continued investment and activity by the developers on the application. This gives a level of security and faith in the application.

5) Is the team public (not anonymous)? (Y/N)

Answer: Yes

Location: https://www.linkedin.com/search/results/people/?currentCompany=%5B%2272032474%22%5D&origin=COMPANY_PAGE_CANNED_SEARCH&sid=6nC.

For a "Yes" in this question, the real names of some team members must be public on the website or other documentation (LinkedIn, etc). If the team is anonymous, then this question is a "No".

Documentation

This section looks at the software documentation. The document explaining these questions is here.

Required questions are;

6) Is there a whitepaper? (Y/N) 7) Are the basic software functions documented? (Y/N) 8) Does the software function documentation fully (100%) cover the deployed contracts? (%) 9) Are there sufficiently detailed comments for all functions within the deployed contract code (%) 10) Is it possible to trace from software documentation to the implementation in code (%)

6) Is there a whitepaper? (Y/N)

Answer: Yes

Location: https://docs.kine.io/.

7) Are the basic software functions documented? (Y/N)

Answer: Yes

The basic software functions are documented at https://docs.kine.io/whitepaper/kine-the-liquidity-pool-protocol and https://github.com/Kine-Technology/kine-protocol/blob/main/docs/contracts_overview.md.

8) Does the software function documentation fully (100%) cover the deployed contracts? (%)

Answer: 100%

All contracts and software functions are documented at https://github.com/Kine-Technology/kine-protocol/tree/main/docs.

Guidance:

100% All contracts and functions documented 80% Only the major functions documented 79-1% Estimate of the level of software documentation 0% No software documentation

9) Are there sufficiently detailed comments for all functions within the deployed contract code (%)

Answer: 70%

Code examples are in the Appendix. As per the SLOC, there is 70% commenting to code (CtC).

The Comments to Code (CtC) ratio is the primary metric for this score.

Guidance: 100% CtC > 100 Useful comments consistently on all code 90-70% CtC > 70 Useful comment on most code 60-20% CtC > 20 Some useful commenting 0% CtC < 20 No useful commenting

How to improve this score

This score can improve by adding comments to the deployed code such that it comprehensively covers the code. For guidance, refer to the SecurEth Software Requirements.

10) Is it possible to trace from software documentation to the implementation in code (%)

Answer: 60%

Although Kine Protocol does a good job at indicating how the software functions interact with each other, what that looks like, and what it does, they do not explicitly lead it back to their own source code. Therefore, it comes non-explicit traceability.

Guidance: 100% Clear explicit traceability between code and documentation at a requirement level for all code 60% Clear association between code and documents via non explicit traceability 40% Documentation lists all the functions and describes their functions 0% No connection between documentation and code

How to improve this score:

This score can improve by adding traceability from documentation to code such that it is clear where each outlined function is coded in the source code. For reference, check the SecurEth guidelines on traceability.

Testing

This section looks at the software testing available. It is explained in this document. This section answers the following questions;

11) Full test suite (Covers all the deployed code) (%) 12) Code coverage (Covers all the deployed lines of code, or explains misses) (%) 13) Scripts and instructions to run the tests (Y/N) 14) Report of the results (%) 15) Formal Verification test done (%) 16) Stress Testing environment (%)

11) Is there a Full test suite? (%)

Answer: 0%

There is no testing suite in the Kine Protocol GitHub repository.

Guidance: 100% TtC > 120% Both unit and system test visible 80% TtC > 80% Both unit and system test visible 40% TtC < 80% Some tests visible 0% No tests obvious

How to improve this score:

This score can improved by adding tests to fully cover the code. Document what is covered by traceability or test results in the software repository.

12) Code coverage (Covers all the deployed lines of code, or explains misses) (%)

Answer: 0%

There is no evidence of a Kine Protocol code coverage in any of their documentation or in their PeckShield audit report.​

Guidance: 100% Documented full coverage 99-51% Value of test coverage from documented results 50% No indication of code coverage but clearly there is a reasonably complete set of tests 30% Some tests evident but not complete 0% No test for coverage seen

How to improve this score:

This score can improved by adding tests that achieve full code coverage. A clear report and scripts in the software repository will guarantee a high score.

13) Scripts and instructions to run the tests (Y/N)

Answer: No

How to improve this score:

Add the scripts to the repository and ensure they work. Ask an outsider to create the environment and run the tests. Improve the scripts and docs based on their feedback.

14) Report of the results (%)

Answer: 0%

There is no evidence of a test result report in any of the Kine Protocol documentation.

Guidance: 100% Detailed test report as described below 70% GitHub code coverage report visible 0% No test report evident

How to improve this score

Add a report with the results. The test scripts should generate the report or elements of it.

15) Formal Verification test done (%)

Answer: 0%

There is no evidence of a Kine Protocol Formal Verification test in any of their documentation.

16) Stress Testing environment (%)

Answer: 100%

There is evidence of Kine Protocol's testnet smart contract usage at https://github.com/Kine-Technology/kine-protocol/tree/main/network.

Security

This section looks at the 3rd party software audits done. It is explained in this document. This section answers the following questions;

17) Did 3rd Party audits take place? (%) 18) Is the bounty value acceptably high?

17) Did 3rd Party audits take place? (%)

Answer: 90%

​PeckShield published a Kine Protocol audit report on February 6th 2021, which was before their mainnet deployment on March 23rd.

Guidance: 100% Multiple Audits performed before deployment and results public and implemented or not required 90% Single audit performed before deployment and results public and implemented or not required 70% Audit(s) performed after deployment and no changes required. Audit report is public

50% Audit(s) performed after deployment and changes needed but not implemented 20% No audit performed 0% Audit Performed after deployment, existence is public, report is not public and no improvements deployed OR smart contract address' not found, (where question 1 is 0%)

Deduct 25% if code is in a private repo and no note from auditors that audit is applicable to deployed code

18) Is the bounty value acceptably high (%)

Answer: 0%

There is no evidence of a Kine Protocol Bug Bounty program in any of their documentation or in further web searches.

Guidance:

100% Bounty is 10% TVL or at least $1M AND active program (see below) 90% Bounty is 5% TVL or at least 500k AND active program 80% Bounty is 5% TVL or at least 500k 70% Bounty is 100k or over AND active program 60% Bounty is 100k or over 50% Bounty is 50k or over AND active program 40% Bounty is 50k or over 20% Bug bounty program bounty is less than 50k 0% No bug bounty program offered

An active program means that a third party (such as Immunefi) is actively driving hackers to the site. An inactive program would be static mentions on the docs.

Access Controls

This section covers the documentation of special access controls for a DeFi protocol. The admin access controls are the contracts that allow updating contracts or coefficients in the protocol. Since these contracts can allow the protocol admins to "change the rules", complete disclosure of capabilities is vital for user's transparency. It is explained in this document. The questions this section asks are as follow;

19) Can a user clearly and quickly find the status of the admin controls? 20) Is the information clear and complete? 21) Is the information in non-technical terms that pertain to the investments? 22) Is there Pause Control documentation including records of tests?

19) Can a user clearly and quickly find the status of the access controls (%)

Answer: 0%

There are currently no access controls documented in the Kine Protocol documentation as they do not currently have a governance model. However, they have stated that this will be a future addition to their ecosystem.

Guidance: 100% Clearly labelled and on website, docs or repo, quick to find 70% Clearly labelled and on website, docs or repo but takes a bit of looking 40% Access control docs in multiple places and not well labelled 20% Access control docs in multiple places and not labelled 0% Admin Control information could not be found

20) Is the information clear and complete (%)

Answer: 0%

There are currently no access controls documented in the Kine Protocol documentation as they do not currently have a governance model. However, they have stated that this will be a future addition to their ecosystem.

Guidance: All the contracts are immutable -- 100% OR

a) All contracts are clearly labelled as upgradeable (or not) -- 30% AND b) The type of ownership is clearly indicated (OnlyOwner / MultiSig / Defined Roles) -- 30% AND c) The capabilities for change in the contracts are described -- 30%

How to improve this score:

Create a document that covers the items described above. An example is enclosed.

21) Is the information in non-technical terms that pertain to the investments (%)

Answer: 0%

There are currently no access controls documented in the Kine Protocol documentation as they do not currently have a governance model. However, they have stated that this will be a future addition to their ecosystem.

Guidance: 100% All the contracts are immutable 90% Description relates to investments safety and updates in clear, complete non-software l language 30% Description all in software specific language 0% No admin control information could not be found

How to improve this score:

Create a document that covers the items described above in plain language that investors can understand. An example is enclosed.

22) Is there Pause Control documentation including records of tests (%)

Answer: 40%

Pause Guardian is mentioned in the Kine Protocol documentation, but no details on capability or test records.

Guidance: 100% All the contracts are immutable or no pause control needed and this is explained OR 100% Pause control(s) are clearly documented and there is records of at least one test within 3 months 80% Pause control(s) explained clearly but no evidence of regular tests 40% Pause controls mentioned with no detail on capability or tests 0% Pause control not documented or explained

How to improve this score:

Create a document that covers the items described above in plain language that investors can understand. An example is enclosed.

Appendices

Author Details

The author of this review is Rex of DeFi Safety.

Email : [email protected] Twitter : @defisafety

I started with Ethereum just before the DAO and that was a wonderful education. It showed the importance of code quality. The second Parity hack also showed the importance of good process. Here my aviation background offers some value. Aerospace knows how to make reliable code using quality processes.

I was coaxed to go to EthDenver 2018 and there I started SecuEth.org with Bryant and Roman. We created guidelines on good processes for blockchain code development. We got EthFoundation funding to assist in their development.

Process Quality Reviews are an extension of the SecurEth guidelines that will further increase the quality processes in Solidity and Vyper development.

DeFiSafety is my full time gig and we are working on funding vehicles for a permanent staff.

Scoring Appendix

Executing Code Appendix

Code Used Appendix

Example Code Appendix

contract Controller is ControllerStorage, KineControllerInterface, Exponential, ControllerErrorReporter {
/// @notice Emitted when an admin supports a market
event MarketListed(KToken kToken);
​
/// @notice Emitted when an account enters a market
event MarketEntered(KToken kToken, address account);
​
/// @notice Emitted when an account exits a market
event MarketExited(KToken kToken, address account);
​
/// @notice Emitted when close factor is changed by admin
event NewCloseFactor(uint oldCloseFactorMantissa, uint newCloseFactorMantissa);
​
/// @notice Emitted when a collateral factor is changed by admin
event NewCollateralFactor(KToken kToken, uint oldCollateralFactorMantissa, uint newCollateralFactorMantissa);
​
/// @notice Emitted when liquidation incentive is changed by admin
event NewLiquidationIncentive(uint oldLiquidationIncentiveMantissa, uint newLiquidationIncentiveMantissa);
​
/// @notice Emitted when redemption params is changed by admin
event NewRedemptionInitialPunishment(uint oldRedemptionInitialPunishmentMantissa, uint newRedemptionInitialPunishmentMantissa);
​
/// @notice Emitted when price oracle is changed
event NewPriceOracle(KineOracleInterface oldPriceOracle, KineOracleInterface newPriceOracle);
​
/// @notice Emitted when pause guardian is changed
event NewPauseGuardian(address oldPauseGuardian, address newPauseGuardian);
​
/// @notice Emitted when an action is paused globally
event ActionPaused(string action, bool pauseState);
​
/// @notice Emitted when an action is paused on a market
event ActionPaused(KToken kToken, string action, bool pauseState);
​
/// @notice Emitted when borrow cap for a kToken is changed
event NewBorrowCap(KToken indexed kToken, uint newBorrowCap);
​
/// @notice Emitted when supply cap for a kToken is changed
event NewSupplyCap(KToken indexed kToken, uint newSupplyCap);
​
/// @notice Emitted when borrow/supply cap guardian is changed
event NewCapGuardian(address oldCapGuardian, address newCapGuardian);
​
// closeFactorMantissa must be strictly greater than this value
uint internal constant closeFactorMinMantissa = 0.05e18; // 0.05
​
// closeFactorMantissa must not exceed this value
uint internal constant closeFactorMaxMantissa = 0.9e18; // 0.9
​
// liquidationIncentiveMantissa must be no less than this value
uint internal constant liquidationIncentiveMinMantissa = 1.0e18; // 1.0
​
// liquidationIncentiveMantissa must be no greater than this value
uint internal constant liquidationIncentiveMaxMantissa = 1.5e18; // 1.5
​
// No collateralFactorMantissa may exceed this value
uint internal constant collateralFactorMaxMantissa = 0.9e18; // 0.9
​
constructor() public {
admin = msg.sender;
}
​
modifier onlyAdmin() {
require(msg.sender == admin, "only admin can call this function");
_;
}
​
/*** Assets You Are In ***/
​
/**
* @notice Returns the assets an account has entered
* @param account The address of the account to pull assets for
* @return A dynamic list with the assets the account has entered
*/
function getAssetsIn(address account) external view returns (KToken[] memory) {
KToken[] memory assetsIn = accountAssets[account];
​
return assetsIn;
}
​
/**
* @notice Returns whether the given account is entered in the given asset
* @param account The address of the account to check
* @param kToken The kToken to check
* @return True if the account is in the asset, otherwise false.
*/
function checkMembership(address account, KToken kToken) external view returns (bool) {
return markets[address(kToken)].accountMembership[account];
}
​
/**
* @notice Add assets to be included in account liquidity calculation
* @param kTokens The list of addresses of the kToken markets to be enabled
* @dev will revert if any market entering failed
*/
function enterMarkets(address[] memory kTokens) public {
uint len = kTokens.length;
for (uint i = 0; i < len; i++) {
KToken kToken = KToken(kTokens[i]);
addToMarketInternal(kToken, msg.sender);
}
}
​
/**
* @notice Add the market to the borrower's "assets in" for liquidity calculations
* @param kToken The market to enter
* @param borrower The address of the account to modify
*/
function addToMarketInternal(KToken kToken, address borrower) internal {
Market storage marketToJoin = markets[address(kToken)];
​
require(marketToJoin.isListed, MARKET_NOT_LISTED);
​
if (marketToJoin.accountMembership[borrower] == true) {
// already joined
return;
}
​
// survived the gauntlet, add to list
// NOTE: we store these somewhat redundantly as a significant optimization
// this avoids having to iterate through the list for the most common use cases
// that is, only when we need to perform liquidity checks
// and not whenever we want to check if an account is in a particular market
marketToJoin.accountMembership[borrower] = true;
accountAssets[borrower].push(kToken);
​
emit MarketEntered(kToken, borrower);
}
​
/**
* @notice Removes asset from sender's account liquidity calculation
* @dev Sender must not have an outstanding borrow balance in the asset,
* or be providing necessary collateral for an outstanding borrow.
* @param kTokenAddress The address of the asset to be removed
*/
function exitMarket(address kTokenAddress) external {
KToken kToken = KToken(kTokenAddress);
/* Get sender tokensHeld and amountOwed underlying from the kToken */
(uint tokensHeld, uint amountOwed) = kToken.getAccountSnapshot(msg.sender);
​
/* Fail if the sender has a borrow balance */
require(amountOwed == 0, EXIT_MARKET_BALANCE_OWED);
​
/* Fail if the sender is not permitted to redeem all of their tokens */
(bool allowed,) = redeemAllowedInternal(kTokenAddress, msg.sender, tokensHeld);
require(allowed, EXIT_MARKET_REJECTION);
​
Market storage marketToExit = markets[address(kToken)];
​
/* Succeed true if the sender is not already β€˜in’ the market */
if (!marketToExit.accountMembership[msg.sender]) {
return;
}
​
/* Set kToken account membership to false */
delete marketToExit.accountMembership[msg.sender];
​
/* Delete kToken from the account’s list of assets */
// load into memory for faster iteration
KToken[] memory userAssetList = accountAssets[msg.sender];
uint len = userAssetList.length;
uint assetIndex = len;
for (uint i = 0; i < len; i++) {
if (userAssetList[i] == kToken) {
assetIndex = i;
break;
}
}
​
// We *must* have found the asset in the list or our redundant data structure is broken
require(assetIndex < len, "accountAssets array broken");
​
// copy last item in list to location of item to be removed, reduce length by 1
KToken[] storage storedList = accountAssets[msg.sender];
if (assetIndex != storedList.length - 1) {
storedList[assetIndex] = storedList[storedList.length - 1];
}
storedList.length--;
​
emit MarketExited(kToken, msg.sender);
}
​

SLOC Appendix

Solidity Contracts

Language

Files

Lines

Blanks

Comments

Code

Complexity

Solidity

55

9599

1517

3322

4760

520

Comments to Code 3322/4760 = 70%

Javascript Tests

Language

Files

Lines

Blanks

Comments

Code

Complexity

JavaScript

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Tests to Code = N/A